A law had been passed on the initiative of the relatively unknown Armando Guebuza of the FRELIMO party, ordering the Portuguese to leave the country in 24 hours with only 20 kilograms (44 pounds) of luggage. There are 3,750 km of navigable inland waterways. "Mozambique Island: The Rise and Decline of an East African Coastal City" 2004. The Soviet Union and its allies became Mozambique's primary economic, military and political supporters, and its foreign policy reflected this linkage. Arabs, Chinese, and Indians primarily speak Portuguese and some Hindi. As of July 6, 2017 the exchange rate between the Mozambican metical versus the US dollar was 1 dollar being equal to 60,265.01 meticais. regulatory agency called CRA, an asset-holding company called FIPAG and a Climatic conditions, however, vary depending on altitude. and sanitation in rural areas, where 62% of the population lives. [16] Further political instability resulting from flooding left thousands homeless, displaced within their own country. The United Methodist Church has tripled in size in Mozambique since 1998. Other groups include Makonde, Yao, Swahili, Tonga, Chopi, and Nguni (including Zulu). The first phase begins in 1980 where the escudo, which was previously the means of exchange in Mozambique, was replaced by the first metical abbreviated as MZM. The music of Mozambique serves many purposes, ranging from religious expression to traditional ceremonies. Postos administrativos (administrative posts) are the main subdivisions of districts. [15] It's believed between the 1st and 5th centuries AD, waves of migration from the west and north went through the Zambezi River valley and then gradually into the plateau and coastal areas of Southern Africa. These movements claimed that since policies and development plans were primarily designed by the ruling authorities for the benefit of Mozambique's Portuguese population, little attention was paid to Mozambique's tribal integration and the development of its native communities. Statistics for the dioceses range from a low 5.8% Catholics in the population in the Diocese of Chimoio, to 32.50% in Quelimane diocese (Anuario catolico de Mocambique 2007). For other uses, see. Mozambique: Maputo: Metical: Portuguese: Prime Minister – Carlos Agostinho do Rosário: Myanmar (Burma) Nay Pyi Taw: Kyat: Burmese: President– Win Myint: Namibia: Windhoek: Namibian dollar: English; Afrikaans; German: Prime Minister – Saara Kuugongelwa: Nauru: no official capital; government offices in Yaren District: Australian dollar: English; Nauran The estimated four million Macua are the dominant group in the northern part of the country; the Sena and Shona (mostly Ndau) are prominent in the Zambezi valley,[16] and the Tsonga and Shangaan people dominate in southern Mozambique. Bantu-speaking people's migration into Mozambique dates as far back as the 4th century BC. The languages in this group are, judging by the short vocabularies,[97] very vaguely similar to Zulu, but obviously not in the same immediate group. [16], After some delays, in 1998 the country held its first local elections to provide for local representation and some budgetary authority at the municipal level. [88] Many of these left the country after independence from Portugal in 1975. By 1999, more than one-half (53%) of the legislation passed originated in the Assembly. [35][36], In 1995, Mozambique joined the Commonwealth of Nations, becoming, at the time, the only member nation that had never been part of the British Empire. Still related to these, but distinct, are GiTonga, BiTonga, and CiCopi or Chopi, spoken north of the mouth of the Limpopo, and XiRonga or Ronga, spoken in the immediate region around Maputo. The standard company tax rate im Mozambique is 32%. Overall loss in HDI value due to inequality, average annual change (%) n.a. Then-Mozambique President Chissano praised the work and role of the UMC to more than 10,000 people who attended the ceremony. After clashes between RENAMO guards and the police in Muxungue and Gondola in April 2013, RENAMO said it would boycott and disrupt local elections in November 2013. [16], During these wars, the Mazrui and Omani Arabs reclaimed much of the Indian Ocean trade, forcing the Portuguese to retreat south. [24], FRELIMO took control of the territory after ten years of sporadic warfare, as well as Portugal's own return to democracy after the fall of the authoritarian Estado Novo regime in the Carnation Revolution of April 1974 and the failed coup of 25 November 1975. [17] Beginning in the 9th century, a growing involvement in Indian Ocean trade led to the development of numerous port towns along the entire East African coast, including modern day Mozambique. Largely autonomous, these towns broadly participated in the incipient Swahili culture. The United Nations' Soviet delegation issued a minority report contending that their expertise and experience had been undermined by the South Africans. To the north of this the port of Nacala is also linked by rail to Malawi, and to the south Maputo is linked to Zimbabwe and South Africa. ][118], Radio programmes are the most influential form of media in the country due to their ease of access. water supply systems. Mozambican War of Independence (1964–1974). Additionally, customs duties have been reduced, and customs management has been streamlined and reformed. It is rich in natural resources, is biologically and culturally diverse, and has a tropical climate. Mozambique is one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world, even though between 1994 and 2006 its average annual GDP growth was approximately 8%. Last updated: 2019-03-19 22:25 UTC. The topics related to Static GK are vast and we provided you with the trustworthy content in adequate quantity. During this stage, in the year 1989, the 5,000 meticais were introduced. [71], Mozambique was ranked 116 of 178 countries in anti-graft watchdog Transparency International's latest index of global corruption. According to the 2011 UNAIDS Report, the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mozambique seems to be levelling off. Mozambique is a multi-party democracy under the 1990 constitution. The third stage involved the printing of notes in denominations of 500, 1,000-, 5,000-, 10,000-, 20,000-, 50,000-, 100,000-, 200,000-, and 500,000 meticais which took place between 1991 and 2003. The old currency was redeemable at the Bank of Mozambique until the end of 2012. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 147 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5s mortality is 29. [29], During the war, RENAMO proposed a peace agreement based on the secession of RENAMO-controlled northern and western territories as the independent Republic of Rombesia, but FRELIMO refused, insisting on the undivided sovereignty of the entire country. [33], Machel's successor Joaquim Chissano implemented sweeping changes in the country, starting reforms such as changing from Marxism to capitalism, and began peace talks with RENAMO. The tourism sector is also expanding. The civil war ended in October 1992 with the Rome General Peace Accords, first brokered by the Christian Council of Mozambique (Council of Protestant Churches) and then taken over by Community of Sant'Egidio. The two best known and most influential contemporary Mozambican artists are the painter Malangatana Ngwenya and the sculptor Alberto Chissano. What is Mozambique's Currency called? [16], In the aftermath of the 1998 local elections, the government resolved to make more accommodations to the opposition's procedural concerns for the second round of multiparty national elections in 1999. African Countries Capitals Currencies – Africa is the World’s second-largest continent – 30,065,000 km² covering approximately 20% of the Earth’s land and 6% of the Earth’s surface .. "in Strategic Analysis, 41(1): 74–86. The government adopted a new code, MZN, and issued new notes and coins through the Bank of Mozambique. Mozambique has resorted to exchange controls in a bid to stave off a currency crisis, after running down its foreign reserves to defend the metical to little avail. População de 5 anos e mais por idade, segundo área de residência, sexo e língua que fala com mais frequência em casa", "Quadro 24. Preparations for privatisation and/or sector liberalisation were made for the remaining parastatal enterprises, including telecommunications, energy, ports, and railways. Since the end of the civil war in 1992, about 300 RENAMO guards had remained armed and refused to join the national army or the police force. In 2019 Mozambique suffered floods and destruction from the devastating cyclones Idai and Kenneth. The judiciary comprises a Supreme Court and provincial, district, and municipal courts. Turnout was very low. However, it was re-established in 1986.[63]. Newer rolling stock has been supplied by the Indian Golden Rock workshop[82] using Centre Buffer Couplers (AAR)[83] and air brakes. Mozambican culture also influences the Portuguese culture. in 2010, claiming heavy losses. [16] The SADC free trade protocol is aimed at making the Southern African region more competitive by eliminating tariffs and other trade barriers. [77], The country's natural environment, wildlife, and historic heritage provide opportunities for beach, cultural, and eco-tourism. They listed a whole range of shortcomings by the electoral authorities that benefited the ruling party FRELIMO. Armando Guebuza was inaugurated as the President of Mozambique on 2 February 2005. [16], The second general elections were held 3–5 December 1999, with high voter turnout. The meticais are issued by the Banco de Moçambique which is the Central Bank. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Indian Ocean to … RENAMO accused FRELIMO of fraud, and threatened to return to civil war, but backed down after taking the matter to the Supreme Court and losing. New churches are chartered each year in each Annual Conference (North and South). There is eMakhuwa proper, with the related eLomwe and eChuwabo, with a small eKoti-speaking area at the coast. The sovereign state is separated from the Comoros, Mayotte and Madagascar by the Mozambique Channel to the east. There is a very small but thriving Jewish community in Maputo. Coordinates: 18°15′S 35°00′E / 18.250°S 35.000°E / -18.250; 35.000. [16] However, in 2012, more than 90% of Mozambique's arable land was still uncultivated. Gross capital formation (% of GDP) n.a. In the southern parts of Mozambique—Maputo and Gaza provinces as well as the city of Maputo—the official figures are more than twice as high as the national average. Mozambique operates a small, functioning military that handles all aspects of domestic national defence, the Mozambique Defence Armed Forces. There are rail links serving principal cities and connecting the country with Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. Through cable and satellite, viewers can access tens of other African, Asian, Brazilian, and European channels. On the other hand, brass was used to mint the 1 MZM and the metal used to mint the 10 and 20 MZM was nickel. [65], Mozambique is one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world, even though between 1994 and 2006 its average annual GDP growth was approximately 8%. Indians from Portuguese India speak any of the Portuguese Creoles of their origin aside from Portuguese as their second language. Statistically, Mozambique's Portuguese whites were indeed wealthier and more skilled than the black indigenous majority. He was found to have colluded with the accountant in the Anti-Drugs Office, Recalda Guambe, to steal over 260,000 meticais between 2008 and 2010. [citation needed], Mozambican media is heavily influenced by the government. The country is divided into two topographical regions by the Zambezi River. Penalties – See topic under corporate tax “Administration and compliance” rules. On 5 September 2014, former president Guebuza and the leader of RENAMO Dhlakama signed the Accord on Cessation of Hostilities, which brought the military hostilities to a halt and allowed both parties to concentrate on the general elections to be held in October 2014. Coins are provided in denominations of 50 centavos, 1, 2, 5 and 10 meticais. [119] Most funding and advertising revenue is given to pro-government newspapers. According to EU observers, the election's shortcomings probably did not affect the final result in the presidential election. Between the first and fifth centuries AD, Bantu-speaking peoples migrated to present-day Mozambique from farther north and west. Mozambique Tax year – Mozambique tax year is the calendar year. Roller hockey is also popular and the best results for the national team was when they came fourth at the 2011 FIRS Roller Hockey World Cup. [18], After the Portuguese invaded Mozambique in about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts displaced the Arabic commercial and military hegemony, becoming regular ports of call on the new European sea route to the east. [120], The TV stations watched by Mozambicans are STV, TIM, and TVM Televisão Moçambique. The second stage was three years later when the same notes and denominations were issued for public use. The work of Methodism in Mozambique started in 1890. The new government under president Samora Machel established a one-party state based on Marxist principles. This was what happened in 1942 with the Mozambique Company, which however continued to operate in the agricultural and commercial sectors as a corporation, and had already happened in 1929 with the termination of the Niassa Company's concession. The 24% turnout was well above the 15% turnout in the first municipal elections. Oxford University Press, 2017. [clarification needed][citation needed] Working through the National Assembly, the electoral law was rewritten and passed by consensus in December 1998. Like its Commonwealth neighbours, traffic circulates on the left. [citation needed]. attention, the government has no strategy for urban sanitation yet. There is an international airport at Maputo, 21 other paved airports, and over 100 airstrips with unpaved runways. [16], Mozambique's economy has been shaken by a number of corruption scandals. The country was named Moçambique by the Portuguese after the Island of Mozambique, derived from Mussa Bin Bique or Musa Al Big or Mossa Al Bique or Mussa Ben Mbiki or Mussa Ibn Malik, an Arab trader who first visited the island and later lived there. [109], The fertility rate is at about 5.5 births per woman. [38][39], In early 2000, a cyclone caused widespread flooding in the country, killing hundreds and devastating the already precarious infrastructure. In this article, we are providing you with the list of country capitals and currency. Representatives of the Soviet Union advanced the theory that the plane had been intentionally diverted by a false navigational beacon signal, using a technology provided by military intelligence operatives of the South African government. Mozambique is a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Morier-Genoud, Eric, "Mozambique since 1989: Shaping democracy after Socialism" in A.R.Mustapha & L.Whitfield (eds), This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 15:10. [16], During the 1970s and the early 1980s, Mozambique's foreign policy was inextricably linked to the struggles for majority rule in Rhodesia and South Africa as well as superpower competition and the Cold War. Below, you'll find Mozambican Metical rates and a currency converter. External donors finance about 87.4% of all public investments in the The country has four notable lakes: Lake Niassa (or Malawi), Lake Chiuta, Lake Cahora Bassa and Lake Shirwa, all in the north. A new route for coal haulage between Tete and Beira was planned to come into service by 2010,[80] and in August 2010, Mozambique and Botswana signed a memorandum of understanding to develop a 1,100 km railway through Zimbabwe, to carry coal from Serule in Botswana to a deepwater port at Techobanine Point in Mozambique.[81]. The official language is Portuguese. The US$, South African rand, and recently the euro are also widely accepted and used in business transactions. [citation needed], By the early 20th century the Portuguese had shifted the administration of much of Mozambique to large private companies, like the Mozambique Company, the Zambezia Company and the Niassa Company, controlled and financed mostly by "British" financiers such as Solomon Joel, which established railroad lines to their neighbouring colonies (South Africa and Rhodesia). Gengenbach, Heidi, "Binding Memories: Women as Makers and Tellers of History in Magude, Mozambique". At time of writing (Aug 09), £1 = 43,848MZM, respectively US$1 = 26,600MZM – check with www.oanda.com for current exchange rates. Republic of Mozambique: Capital City: Maputo: 25 57 S, 32 35 E: Total Area: 799,380.00 km 2: Land Area: 786,380.00 km 2: Water Area: 13,000.00 km 2: Population: 30,366,036: Major Cities Matola (1,705,886) Maputo (1,110,477) Nampula (848,096) Beira (569,911) Chimoio (425,069) Quelimane (414,813) Tete (370,650) Currency [16] The civil war took about 600 000 lives, by 1990, the number increased to over a million people. The chartered companies built roads and ports to bring their goods to market including a railroad linking present day Zimbabwe with the Mozambican port of Beira. [16], In December 1999, Mozambique held elections for a second time since the civil war, which were again won by FRELIMO. Currently, the coins used in Mozambique are in denominations of 1, 2, 5, and 10 meticais, as well as 50 centavos. The history pertaining to the Mozambican Metical exists in two phases. [107], The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) has established a growing presence in Mozambique. Western aid by the Scandinavian countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland quickly replaced Soviet support. [111], The official HIV prevalence in Mozambique in 2011 was 11.5% of the population aged between 15 and 49 years. (PPP) with a company called Aguas de Moçambique. At 309,475 sq mi (801,537 km2), Mozambique is the world's 36th-largest country. Average temperature ranges in Maputo are from 13 to 24 °C (55.4 to 75.2 °F) in July and from 22 to 31 °C (71.6 to 87.8 °F) in February. Maputo, the lush capital of Mozambique, sits on the shore of the Indian Ocean. These claims were supported by international observers (among others by the European Union Election Observation Mission to Mozambique and the Carter Centre) to the elections who criticised the fact that the National Electoral Commission (CNE) did not conduct fair and transparent elections. This phase involved the issuance and circulation of the second meticais in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 centavos and 1, 2, 5, and 10 MZN. Carlos Cardoso, a journalist investigating these allegations, was murdered,[41][42] and his death was never satisfactorily explained. The first stage took place on June 16th, 1980 where notes were first introduced in Mozambique in denominations of 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 meticais. As part of their response to FRELIMO, the Portuguese government began to pay more attention to creating favourable conditions for social development and economic growth. Since 2001, Mozambique's annual average GDP growth has been among the world's highest. Mozambique is located on the southeast coast of Africa. In the same year, Mozambique became a founding member and the first President of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), and maintains close ties with other Portuguese-speaking countries.[16]. There are many different kinds of dances from tribe to tribe which are usually ritualistic in nature. The minimum legal salary is around US$60 per month. The districts of Mozambique are divided into 405 postos. [26] Starting shortly after the independence, the country was plagued from 1977 to 1992 by a long and violent civil war between the opposition forces of anti-communist Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO) rebel militias and the FRELIMO regime. Mozambique has a tropical climate with two seasons, a wet season from October to March and a dry season from April to September. Community of Portuguese Language Countries, List of non-marine molluscs of Mozambique, Water supply and sanitation in Mozambique, United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Learn how and when to remove this template message, start of the armed fight for national liberation, http://www.globalreligiousfutures.org/countries/mozambique#/?affiliations_religion_id=0&affiliations_year, https://www.indexmundi.com/mozambique/religions.html, "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns", "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns", "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects", "Provincial Autonomy: The Territorial Dimension of Peace in Mozambique", "The archaeological evidence for the appearance of pastoralism and farming in southern Africa", Independence redux in postsocialist Mozambique, Table 14.1C Centi-Kilo Murdering States: Estimates, Sources and Calculations, A Mozambique Formally at Peace Is Bled by Hunger and Brutality, "Special Investigation into the death of President Samora Machel", "Mozambican Elections Thrown in Doubt (Published 1994)", "Commonwealth | History, Members, & Facts", "Frelimo's election win to be challenged", "BBC News | AFRICA | Mozambique: How disaster unfolded", "afrol News: Mozambican President not going for third term", "World Briefing | Africa: Mozambique: Election Winner Declared (Published 2004)", "Mozambique swears in new president, opposition stays away", "Mozambican refugees stuck between somewhere and nowhere", "Religious unrest in Mozambique – in pictures", "ISIS take over luxury islands popular among A-list celebrities", "Amid a Cyclone's Floods and Destruction, Mozambique Finds Shards of Hope", Mozambican ex-rebels Renamo in police clash, President Halonen: Development aid should be transparent and efficient, "Mozambique decriminalises gay and lesbian relationships", "Mozambique's enduring discrimination leaves gay men untreated for HIV", "Mozambique | Þróunarsamvinnustofnun Íslands", World DataBank World Development Indicators Mozambique, Portugal's unemployed heading to Mozambique 'paradise', "Mozambique proposes new anti-corruption laws", "Mozambique: Corruption Alleged in Anti-Drugs Office", "Great Lakes Africa Energy | Our Projects", "GLA Energy to construct 250MW gas powered plant in Mozambique", "Will Mozambique end up like Nigeria or Norway? In 1951, the Portuguese overseas colonies in Africa were rebranded as Overseas Provinces of Portugal. The national team is the Mozambique national football team. After only two years of independence, the country descended into an intense and protracted civil war lasting from 1977 to 1992. Mozambique's currency is the metical (MZM). sanitation (estimated to be 25% in 2011) and mostly poor service There are also institutes which give more vocational training, specialising in agricultural, technical or pedagogical studies, which students may attend after grade 10 in lieu of a pre-university school. South Sudan's Central Bank says it will tighten the country's monetary policy to mitigate the rapid depreciation of the South Sudanese Pound against the US dollar. Staples and crops such as cassava (a starchy root of Brazilian origin) and cashew nuts (also of Brazilian origin, though Mozambique was once the largest producer of these nuts[citation needed]), and pãozinho (pronounced [pɐ̃wˈzĩɲu], Portuguese-style French buns[citation needed]), were brought in by the Portuguese. The capital and largest city of Mozambique is Maputo (formerly known as "Lourenço Marques" from 1876 to 1976). [60], The 1984 Nkomati Accord, while failing in its goal of ending South African support to RENAMO, opened initial diplomatic contacts between the Mozambican and South African governments. They brought with them the technology for melting and smithing iron. This is the first time two cyclones have struck the southern African nation in a single season.[56]. This process gained momentum with South Africa's elimination of apartheid, which culminated in the establishment of full diplomatic relations in October 1993. The second local elections, involving thirty-three municipalities with some 2.4 million registered voters, took place in November 2003. All figures are live mid-market rates, which are not available to consumers and are for informational purposes only. The coinage period of the Mozambican metical occurred in two phases. Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected. [28] The war was marked by mass human rights violations from both sides of the conflict, with RENAMO contributing to the chaos through the use of terror and indiscriminate targeting of civilians. Mozambique (/ˌmoʊzæmˈbiːk/), officially the Republic of Mozambique (Portuguese: Moçambique or República de Moçambique, Portuguese pronunciation: [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ ðɨ musɐ̃ˈbikɨ]; Chichewa: Mozambiki; Swahili: Msumbiji; Tsonga: Muzambhiki), is a country located in Southern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Eswatini (Swaziland) and South Africa to the southwest. This name, in use during colonial times, was abolished after independence[62] and was replaced by localidades (localities). Suffrage is universal at eighteen. This conflict—along with the two others already initiated in the other Portuguese colonies of Angola and Portuguese Guinea—became part of the so-called Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974). [50] The UNHCR, Doctors Without Borders, and Human Rights Watch reported that government forces had torched villages and carried out summary executions and sexual abuses. 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